I am sure most of us might have heard about one of the popular savings tool called Recurring Deposit (RD). Infact most of us might have started the investment plan with an investment in RD or Fixed Deposit (FD). These are excellent investment/saving tools to accumulate a corpus for short term goals like creating an emergency fund, creating a corpus to meet Kid’s yearly education fees, saving for big time purchases like LED TV etc., They are safe and provide guaranteed returns.
Financial products like RDs and FDs are very simple to understand and invest. Now, almost every bank provides you the option to invest in these deposits through online mode. Many banks do provide lot of innovative and flexible Recurring Deposits now (For example – ICICI Bank’s iWish Flexible RD). But, when it comes to Recurring Deposit Taxes and Fixed deposit taxes – how they work with respect to tax implications is still a big question mark (confusing point) for many of us.
In this post let us understand – Whether the interest earned on Fixed Deposits and Recurring deposits is tax free? Is recurring deposit interest is taxable or not? How are RD maturity and FD maturity amounts treated in terms of taxation? Should I pay taxes every year on RD/FD or should I pay the income tax on the maturity date of my RD/FD? How is TDS (Tax Deducted at Source) applicable on Recurring deposit (RD) and FD? Budget 2015 – Is TDS now applicable on Recurring Deposits (RDs)? How to calculate interest amount on RD and FD? Do they have any income tax benefits or exemptions?
From your Income Tax Returns point of view, it is very important to understand the below points. I have seen many investors ignoring (or may be not aware of) the Fixed deposit taxes and Recurring Deposit taxes in their Income Tax Returns (ITR). I am sure you might have heard or seen your friend(s) receiving ‘compliance notices’ from Income Tax department for not showing these Time Deposits (FDs & RDs) in ITRs.
Tax implications on Fixed Deposits
- There are no income tax benefits or deductions applicable for Fixed Deposits. The interest income earned on Fixed deposits is taxable. (5 year Tax saving Bank Deposit have tax exemption under Section 80c, but the interest income earned is taxable on these deposits too.)
- Banks do not deduct TDS if the Interest income earned on Fixed Deposits is less than Rs 10,000 per year. That does not mean this is a tax-free income in your hands. You still need to add this as ‘income from other source’ when you file your Income Tax Returns. (If the interest exceeds Rs 10,000 in a financial year, the bank will deduct 10 per cent tax before crediting the interest to the account.)
- Interest income on your Savings Bank Account up to Rs 10,000 is tax free as per Income Tax Act 1961. Do not get confused this with the above point. Interest on your Savings a/c balance is different from the FD interest.
- Individuals who do not have taxable income and do not have any other source of income can submit Form 15 G (or) Form 15 H (above 60 years old person-senior citizens) to their banks to avoid TDS. NRIs cannot submit these forms. If your interest income itself is above the income tax exemption limit (for a given Financial Year)then you are not eligible to submit these forms. Remember that you need to submit Form 15 G or Form 15H every year. Banks may ask you to mention the details about your other Bank(s) FDs too.
- If your interest income on a Fixed Deposit is more than Rs 10,000 then you need to show the entire interest income when you are filling your Tax returns. If banks have deducted TDS on this income, you can capture this information in the “TDS Sheet” of your Income Tax Returns form.( Banks deduct TDS on FDs at 10 per cent only if the interest exceeds Rs 10,000 in a financial year. But your actual income tax slab may be say 30%. So, you need to pay the income taxes according to your slab.)
- An important aspect which one needs to keep in mind is that you have to furnish your PAN (Permanent Account Number) number to the bank. If you fail to furnish the PAN number, the bank shall deduct tax at the rate of 20% instead of 10% generally applicable.
Recurring Deposit Taxes – How do they work?
As per the provisions of Income Tax Act, there are certain investments/deposits on which no tax is required to be deducted without any limit of the amount of such interest. Tax is not deducted on any interest paid on any savings account or deposit in any of your recurring deposit account, be it with any bank, or Co-operative credit society or Cooperative bank. Banks Deduct TDS on your Fixed Deposits but not on Recurring Deposits. “No TDS on RD is charged,” this does not mean, it is a tax free income. It’s a misconception.
- The interest income earned on your RD is not exempted from income tax. It is taxable.
- You need to add the interest income as ‘income from other source’ when you file your IT returns.
Latest News : The budget 2015-2016 has put RDs at par with FDs for TDS purpose. Banks will deduct Tax Deducted at Source (TDS) on Recurring Deposits too, from 1st June, 2015. Remember, TDS doesn’t end your Tax Liability. Interest on RDs & FDs is fully taxable as income at the rate applicable to you. So even if TDS has been cut, you might have to pay more tax.
How much Income Tax do I need to pay on FD’s & RD’s interest income?
- If your taxable income is below Rs 2.5 Lakh and banks deduct TDS (you can submit Form 15 G/H to avoid TDS), you can claim back TDS as refund in your Income Tax Returns (ITR)
- If your income is between Rs 2.5 Lakh to Rs 5 Lakh, you need not pay any extra income tax. Because, the income tax rate of 10% matches with Bank’s TDS rate which is also at 10%.
- If your income is in the range of Rs 5 Lakh to Rs 10 Lakh, you need to pay 10.30% beyond the TDS rate.
- If your income is over Rs 10 Lakh, the differential tax rate is 20.60%.
When to pay income tax on my Recurring Deposit (RD) or Fixed Deposit (FD)?
Now that we are clear about Recurring deposits taxes and Fixed deposits taxes, we also need to understand when to show the interest income for paying the applicable income taxes?. Do we need to pay taxes on this income every year or when the deposit matures?
The answer is, the taxes on Bank FD (over and above the TDS amount) and full tax amount on RD can be paid either in every financial year (or) on maturity. We can choose when to pay the taxes on FD and RD on maturity, instead of each Financial Year. But, once opted (when to pay the taxes) we need to stick to the same method. (Actually in accounting terms these are known as ‘Mercantile’ or ‘Cash’ accounting methods).
Is Fixed Deposit/RD Interest Of Minors Taxable?
Sometimes, you may open FD or RD deposit account in the name of your minor kid. If you have opened a FD in your minor child’s name, you need to pay tax on the entire interest income. The income is clubbed with your income.
Another interesting point is, what happens if your child becomes a MAJOR before the FD/RD matures?
In this case, if you have been paying taxes on FD/RD every year, the RD/FD’s interest income is taxable in the your hands as long as your kid is a minor. As soon as he/she becomes a major, it is treated as his/her income. Your child is liable to pay the taxes.
If you chose to pay taxes on FD/RD maturity date, the tax liability vests on you (if your kid is still a minor), else your kid (who is a major) is liable to pay the applicable taxes (if any).
Though it is headache to pay the taxes every year, it is better to show the interest income every year in your ITR. Else, you may receive compliance notice about time deposits for FD/RD amounts (if these are not included in your ITR). (Do not get scared when you receive these kind of IT notices. You can reply to Income Tax department about the method you have chosen. But do reply to these notices.)
How to calculate the interest income on RDs ?
Banks issue/send ‘interest certificate’ or ‘TDS certificate’ on your FDs & RDs every year.
So, regarding FDs you are very clear about TDS and there is no confusion regarding the FD interest calculation part also. (Most of the banks have made these certificates available online. You can visit your bank’s website and download them). Since Banks do not deduct TDS on Recurring Deposits, they do not issue TDS certificates for RD investments. So, the calculation of the total interest income earned on your RD(s) in a given Financial year can be quite cumbersome. (Also, most of the bank offer RDs on a quarterly compounding basis).
I suggest you to visit the below links to calculate the RD interest income.
- RD calculator (Corporation Bank website) (This RD interest calculator considers investment in BEGIN mode. Lets say you book RD on a monthly basis, then it is assumed that the investments are made in the beginning of every month.) (You need to deduct the total invested RD amount from total maturity amount, to get the interest amount for a specific period.)
When do you pay FD/Recurring deposit taxes? Do you show the FD/RD interest in your Income Tax Returns (ITR) every Financial year? Do share your views and comments. Cheers!
(Image courtesy of hin255 at FreeDigitalPhotos.net) (You may like visiting my post on “Are you aware of this interesting fact on BANK DEPOSITS?“) (Download Form 15 G / Form 15 H )